Telur berbentuk lonjong berwarna kuning keemasan tertutup ovisacs wol berwarna putih panjang 0,30 – 0,75mm, lebar 0,15 –0,30 mm. Hammond, W. N. O., and P. Neuenschwander 1990. The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) attacks cassava; The citrus mealybug ... (Editors). It is grown by many low income farmers and provides both food security and income. Widespread. Asia, Africa, South America. In 1973, P. manihoti was reported as an introduced arthropod species on cassava in Congo (Sylvestre, 1973; Matile-Ferrero, 1978) and Congo Democratic Republic (Hahn and Williams, 1973).Within a few years after these first reports, the insect became the major cassava pest and spread rapidly through most of the African cassava belt. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. Kutu putih bukan merupakan hama asli dari Indonesia. Qualitative estimates of infestation pressure are reflected in the color-coding, with green-colored dots (or the associated contour-lines) representing absence of P. manihoti and red-colored dots or contour-lines showing severe field-level infestation. Chapter 3 Cassava in Africa Rory J. Hillocks Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK Origins of Cassava in Africa The Madeira mealybug Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a highly invasive pest species and is spreading and invading new areas globally. 2000 607* Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero rev. Maconellicoccus) Dec. 2007 699* Phenacoccus madeirensis Green Jun. Journal of Biological Control, 26 (1): 18-22, 2012. Phenacoccus hirsutus Green (see. Distribution. Symptoms & Life Cycle Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. It has not yet been recorded in the Pacific islands, including Papua New Guinea. The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Tanzania Share . ... ©CAB International. Reason: • Insects used are source of biological control agents are too different from target pest, resulting in parasitoids either too Phenacoccus manihoti poses a threat to the food security and livelihood of the poor farmers (Yonow et al. Phenacoccus madeirensis has a grey oval body covered by thin, white, mealy wax, with red legs and dark dorso-submedial bare spots on intersegmental areas of the thorax and abdomen. J Appl Ecol 25:921–940 CrossRef Google Scholar It has been reported from most West African countries, but this is the first published report from Mali. ... CABI … pp. They are soft- bodied, wingless, and covered by white wax and hairs. Only solitary parasitism was permitted. Spread trajectories of Phenacoccus manihoti in Thailand, during its 2008–2011 invasion. The cassava mealybug is whitish, soft-bodied and only about 1 to 3 mm long. In the 1970s, the invasive, non-native cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) erupted in numbers in Africa and spread rapidly, mainly due to it not having any natural enemies. The impact of Phenacoccus manihoti on growth and tuber yield of cassava, and the results of its biological control by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi were investigated in a survey of 60 farmers' fields in Ghana and Ivory Coast over an area of 180 000 km2 of the savanna and forest ecosystems. Introduction. P. manihoti was accidentally introduced into Africa in the 1970s, and became a major pest in most cassava growing regions causing yield losses as high as 80%. Twenty-nine variables associated with plant growth, agronomic and environmental … ISBN: 0-85199-639-6. ... Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) which invaded Southeast Asia in 2008, where it caused substantial crop losses and triggered two- to three-fold surges in agricultural commodity prices. Biological Control of the Cassava Mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, by the Exotic Parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi in Africa February 1988 Philosophical Transactions of … Cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti. Share this with Facebook: Twitter: Email: Recognize the problem Cassava mealybugs are also called “Vidung’ata” in Swahili. 1993 466. Cassava is an important crop to many local smallholder farmers in Thailand, so this pest outbreak had significant negative impacts on farmers’ incomes and their rural livelihoods. Causes loss of leaves (in Africa, cassava used as leafy vegetable), low root yields, and poor cuttings for next crop. Salah satu serangga yang berperan sebagai hama penting dalam kegiatan budi daya ubi kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz) adalah kutu putih Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) atau mealybug. Epidinocarsis lopezi has proved to be an efficient biological control agent of the cassava pest Phenacoccus manihoti despite apparently low rates of parasitism. Phoracantha recurva Newman Jun. Summary. The eggs may hatch as soon as they are laid, giving the impression that young are born rather than hatched. 2009 721* Phoracantha semipunctata (Fabricius) rev. Phenacoccus manihoti, known as cassava mealybug, originated from central South America (Neuenschwander 2003) and it is infamous for the devastation it caused to cassava when it was accidentally introduced to equatorial Africa in the 1980s (Williams & Granara de Willink 1992). Cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive pest native to South America. From 1984 onward, the introduced parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi and some introduced coccinellid predators were released on 54 occasions along the spreading front of the infestation. 45-59. Species Transported by Pathway. Gutierrez AP, Neuenschwander P, Schulthess F, Herren HR, Baumgaertner JU, Wermelinger B, Loehr B, Ellis CK (1988) Analysis of biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Published under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 licence. The impact of a biological control program against Phenacoccus manihoti on cassava was assessed by surveys carried out in Zambia twice yearly from 1986 to 1990. On cassava and relatives. The effectiveness of the exotic South American hymenopterous parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi in controlling Phenacoccus manihoti, which was accidentally introduced from South America to Africa in the early 1970s, was assessed using emergence samples. These areas form 1 pair of dark longitudinal lines on the dorsum. Damage intensity is influenced by cassava mealybug population 15% and other factors 85%. This pest attacked African cassava crops, causing crop losses of up to 80%. It is a generalist in diet and habitat and has been found on more than 130 genera of host plants from 51 families (ScaleNet, 2016).It is considered one of the most economically significant pests of many … Laboratory experiments have indicated that its killing power at higher temperatures is 2-3 times higher than the percentage mummy formation suggests. Pathway Cause / Pathway Vector datasheets. Cassava, and wild relative, Manihot glaziovii (tree cassava), and some weeds. 17 CABI, Wallingford, United Kingdom. II. Jun. 1. Share this with Facebook: Twitter: Email: Recognize the problem Cassava mealybug (Vidung’ata in Swahili) is a pest of cassava which can reduce yields by half. Areas in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay were searched for the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti. 18 University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX … Phenacoccus madeirensis Guangdong, China Open field Bidens pilosa Aug. 2012 15 Phenacoccus manihoti Tây Ninh, Vietnam Indoor rearing M. esculenta Nov. 2013 16 Phenacoccus solani Beijing, China Greenhouse Eupatorium adenophorum Jan. 2014 17 Phenacoccus solenopsis Hainan, China Open field H. rosa-sinensis Nov. 2012 18 Southeast Asia, not Oceania. The life cycle of Epidinocarsis lopezi, a parasitoid of the cassava pest Phenacoccus manihoti, was studied at 26±1°C, 80±10% RH and LH 12:12. Kutu putih berasal dari kawasan Amerika Selatan. Hosts. Tanzania Share . CABI Publishing in association with the ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). Cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti ) Eggs are oblong, golden-yellow, and enclosed in woolly ovisacs located at the posterior end of the adult females. They are tiny insects, less than ½ cm in size. Phenacoccus manihoti. Phenacoccus manihoti. Phenacoccus manihoti (P. manihoti) have been reported to occur in South Africa [15, 16] and its presence further validated using PCR [15, 16]. Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug), an invasive pest of South American origin, devastated cassava production in equatorial Africa following its accidental introduction in the 1980s (Neuenschwander 2003, Williams & Granara de Willink 1992). Research Article . Datasheets and useful lists. Extremely important in Africa until effective biocontrol. In the 1980s and 1990s, CABI & CFS: 7 large biological control projects against native Canadian pests Results: 2 parasitoids introduced – no establishment. Widespread distribution. The mealybug was located in the Paraguay River basin in the Santa Cruz de la Sierra area of eastern Bolivia, the Mato Grosso do Sul state in south-western Brazil and in Paraguay east of the Paraguay River. Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero in Africa (CABI, 2005). 2017). The mean durations of the developmental stages were: embryogenesis 42 h; 1st instar 15 h; 2nd instar 34 h; 3rd instar 31 h; 4th instar 43 h; pre-nymphal stage 91 h; nymphal stage 145 h. Phenacoccus manihoti. Phenacoccus manihoti pest attack intensity in each observation location in the three Regencieson Flores Island is mild to moderate, namely 43.3% in Sikka Regency; 20% in Ende Regency and 22% in Nagekeo Regency. One of the advantages of the relational nature of the database of datasheets in the ISC is the way in which it enables lists to be created of datasheets associated with other datasheets. Phenacoccus parvus Morrison Dec. 1990 518. Sustained biological control of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. During 2009-2010, cassava mealybugs, Phenacoccus manihoti, spread through cassava crops in Thailand causing an 18% decline in crop yields. Phenacoccus manihoti. Jun. Morfologi dan siklus hidup Phenacoccus manihoti menurut CABI, 2013. 2009 721 * Phoracantha semipunctata ( Fabricius ) rev present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some the. Kuning keemasan tertutup ovisacs wol berwarna putih panjang 0,30 – 0,75mm, lebar 0,15 –0,30.... ½ cm phenacoccus manihoti cabi size insects, less than ½ cm in size mealybug ( Phenacoccus manihoti is whitish soft-bodied... The impression that young are born rather than hatched from most West countries... 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