[10] In China and India, domesticated flax was cultivated at least 5,000 years ago. [52][53], Flax fiber in different forms, before and after processing. The plant is pulled up with the roots (not cut), so as to increase the fiber length. GRN 000280", "Geographical and seasonal association between linamarin and cyanide exposure from cassava and the upper motor neurone disease konzo in former Zaire", "Grow and Harvest Flax - Materials Matter 2016", "Flax (linseed) production in 2018; Crops/Regions/World List/Production Quantity (from pick lists)", "The last straw: nine ways to handle flax straw", "Flax growers try to flush Triffid from system", "Sampling and Testing Protocol for Canadian Flaxseed Exported to the European Union", "Canada moves to revive flax exports after GMO flap", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flax&oldid=998662131, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from May 2020, All articles needing additional references, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 12:47. When wrapped around a finger, the inner woody part springs away from the fibers. The flax plant turned over and is gripped by rubber belts roughly 20–25 cm (8-10") above ground, to avoid getting grasses and weeds in the flax. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long, and 3 mm broad. 0 0 1 ... , or made from synthetic fibres or combinations of natural fibres and synthetic fibres. Its low abrasion is also a strength not to be denied. A 100-gram portion of ground flaxseed supplies about 534 calories (2,230 kJ), 41 g of fat, 28 g of fiber, and 20 g of protein. In September 2009, Canadian flax exports reportedly had been contaminated by a deregistered genetically modified cultivar called 'Triffid' that had food and feed safety approval in Canada and the U.S.,[54][55] however, Canadian growers and the Flax Council of Canada raised concerns about the marketability of this cultivar in Europe where a zero tolerance policy exists regarding unapproved genetically modified organisms. These are then dried to extract the seed. Contemporary researchers have specified that natural flax fiber is comparable with synthetic fibers due to its unique physical and mechanical characteristics which have been recognized for decades. [26] If packed immediately without exposure to air and light, milled flaxseed is stable against excessive oxidation when stored for nine months at room temperature,[27] and under warehouse conditions, for 20 months at ambient temperatures. A common feature of natural fibers is a much higher variability of mechanical properties. [13] Phoenicians traded Egyptian linen throughout the Mediterranean and the Romans used it for their sails. Flax is a difficult fiber to spin in blends as it is coarser than cotton and most of the artificial or synthetic fibers (between 4 to 8,5 Micronaire), it is quite short (between 14 and 20 mm, and cut combed tops can go up to 25 mm) and it has a weak fiber adhesion. Princeton University Press, p.12, Cullis C. (2007) "Oilseeds" Springer, p. 275, Sekhri S. (2011) "Textbook of Fabric Science: Fundamentals to Finishing". [41] Another meta-analysis has shown that consumption of flaxseed for more than 12 weeks produced small reductions in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Stream retting is similar to pool retting, but the flax is submerged in bundles in a stream or river. Flaxseeds contain several beneficial components, including high levels of fiber, omega-3 fatty acids and lignans. Flax is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. It is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in cooler regions of the world. Metal containers will not work, as an acid is produced when retting, and it would corrode the metal. In 2018, world production of flax (linseed) was 3.2 million tonnes, led by Kazakhstan with 29% of the total. Europe and North America both depended on flax for plant-based cloth until the 19th century, when cotton overtook flax as the most common plant for making rag-based paper. Length: Length is the most important factor for assessing the value of a fiber. Longer fiber - finer and stronger Ex of long staple) Pima cotton, Egyptian cotton ... similar to flax very strong fiber, especially when wet. It's a natural fibre! (c) Terylene is a synthetic fibre but flax is a natural fibre. Flax, hemp, jute, and kenaf are characterized by a high proportion of long, flexible bast fibres that are readily separated and purified from the other materials in the plant. Manufactured and Synthetic fibers (can have generic and trade names) ... Staple length is important as it relates to fiber fineness and tensile strength. But with laws designed to publicize the hygiene of linen textiles and the health of linseed oil, Charlemagne revived the crop in the eighth century CE. Thread is produced using the small wheel often called a flax wheel. Although it may increase the omega-3 content in eggs and meat, it is also an inferior and potentially toxic feed for poultry, although it can be used in small amounts. For Ex: cotton, wool ,Silk ,flax, jute. [29][30] In the US, flax-based feed for ruminants is often somewhat more expensive than other feeds on a nutrient basis. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) tall, with slender stems. A distaff is a tool which keeps the fibers separated and properly aligned during spinning. The raw materials used to manufacture natural-fibre composites are environment-friendly and have the potential to replace synthetic fibres over the coming years. [42] Flaxseed supplementation showed a small reduction in c-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation) only in persons with a BMI greater than 30. [32] Industrial-scale flax fiber processing existed in antiquity. [5][6][7] Humans first domesticated flax in the Fertile Crescent region. It is stronger than cotton fiber, but less elastic. Both pond and stream retting were traditionally used less because they pollute the waters used for the process. [40], A meta-analysis has shown that consumption of more than 30 g of flaxseed daily for more than 12 weeks reduced body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference for persons with a BMI greater than 27. (a) flax Flax is a vegetable fibre, and all vegetable fibres have cellulose as their structural material. Since then, flax has lost its importance as a commercial crop, due to the easy availability of more durable fibres. [24] Whole flaxseeds are chemically stable, but ground flaxseed meal, because of oxidation, may go rancid when left exposed to air at room temperature in as little as one week. [44] Like many common foods, flax contains small amounts of cyanogenic glycoside,[45] which is nontoxic when consumed in typical amounts, but may be toxic when consumed in large quantities as with staple foods such as cassava. [43], Flaxseed and its oil have repeatedly been demonstrated to be nontoxic and are generally recognized as safe for human consumption. Flax for fiber production is usually harvested by a specialized flax harvester. Answer: Silk is not a synthetic fiber.. Option D. Explanation: Synthetic fibres are usually made from the polymerization of organic chemicals in high heat followed by cooling to room temperature resulting in formation of textile fibres. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant. The plants then pass over the machine and is placed on the field crosswise to the harvesters direction of travel. The second part of the process brings the flax into a state for the very finest purposes, such as lace, cambric, damask, and very fine linen. Which of the following is not a synthetic fibre? [4] Some of these are perennial plants, unlike L. usitatissimum, which is an annual plant. It is an edible oil obtained by expeller pressing and sometimes followed by solvent extraction. In a coronet, it appeared on the reverse of the British one-pound coin to represent Northern Ireland on coins minted in 1986, 1991, and 2014. Cotton is the most common natural fibers in our daily life. As opposed to natural fibres, filament production in synthetic fibres is brought about by the spinning process which is either wet or dry. Since flax is such a long fiber, special care must be given before spinning to keep it from tangling. Flax stem, fiber, yarn and woven and knitted linen textiles. This second part is performed by a refining machine. The meal is an adequate and traditional source of protein for rabbits at 8-10%. It can be retted in a pond, stream, field, or tank. Their first product is a chair made from linen composite fibres with recycled brass. Formed into windrows from the harvesting process, the straw often clogs up tillage and planting equipment. [33], The best grades are used for fabrics such as damasks, lace, and sheeting. At this point, straw, or coarse outer stem (cortex and epidermis), is still remaining. As thermal and acoustic isolator, it offers many ecological benefits and its impact on the environment is limited. One study of research published between 1990 and 2008 showed that consuming flaxseed or its derivatives may reduce total and LDL-cholesterol in the blood, with greater benefits in women and those with high cholesterol. Short Answer Type Questions (15) Ans: Two types of fibres are (a) Natural fibres and (b) Synthetic fibres. The fiber degrades once the plants turn brown. Using with Carbon Fiber Ekoa ® is engineered to be compatible with carbon fiber. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Silk is the exception, being formed as filament, which may be 500-2000 meter in length. [49] Other major producers were Canada, Russia, and China (table). Flax fibre is characterised by high rigidity and vibration absorption and low density (1.4 p (g/cm³)) compared to glass fibre (2.54 p (g/cm³)) and other composite fibres. Pond-retted flax is traditionally considered of lower quality, possibly because the product can become dirty, and is easily over-retted, damaging the fiber. [21][22] Another disadvantage of the meal and seed is that it contains a vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) antagonist, and may require this vitamin be supplemented, especially in chickens, and furthermore linseeds contain 2-7% of mucilage (fibre), which may be beneficial in humans[19] and cattle,[29] but cannot be digested by non-ruminants and can be detrimental to young animals, unless possibly treated with enzymes. Its oil is known as linseed oil. A Bronze Age factory dedicated to flax processing was discovered in Euonymeia, Greece. Linseed meal, the by-product of producing linseed oil from flax seeds, is used as livestock fodder. (e) Fabrics are made first by spinning the fibre to make yarn and then weaving or knitting the yarn. It might also act as a substitute to tallow in increasing marbling. [22], Flaxseeds produce a vegetable oil known as flaxseed oil or linseed oil, which is one of the oldest commercial oils. The overview in Table 1 shows that the number of studies carried out in the field of carbon/flax fiber composites and the diversity of the studied scientific questions are raising with time. Most of this fibre reaching the paper industry in the past has been secondary or waste fibre. ", "Meta-analysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids", "The effect of flaxseed supplementation on body weight and body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 45 randomized placebo-controlled trials", "Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials", "Effect of Flaxseed Intervention on Inflammatory Marker C-Reactive Protein: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials", "GRAS Petition by Flax Canada, Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. If the flax straw is not harvested, typically, it is burned, since the stalks are quite tough and decompose slowly (i.e., not in a single season). In early versions of the Sleeping Beauty tale, such as "Sun, Moon, and Talia" by Giambattista Basile, the princess pricks her finger, not on a spindle, but on a sliver of flax, which later is sucked out by her children conceived as she sleeps. [14] As the Roman Empire declined, so did flax production. Flax is harvested for fiber production after about 100 days, or a month after the plants flower and two weeks after the seed capsules form. The amount of weeds in the straw affects its marketability, and this, coupled with market prices, determines whether the farmer chooses to harvest the flax straw. [56] Subsequently, deregistered in 2010 and never grown commercially in Canada or the U.S.,[57] 'Triffid' stores were destroyed, but future exports and further tests at the University of Saskatchewan proved that 'Triffid' persisted among flax crops, possibly affecting future crops. Moreover, flax fibers are used to make linen. When dried sufficiently, a combine then harvests the seeds similar to wheat or oat harvesting. PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, p. 76, Wisseman S. (2013) "Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials". Linseed meal. Flax linen is a natural fiber, know for its vibration dampening properties. When the retting is complete, the bundles of flax feel soft and slimy, and quite a few fibers are standing out from the stalks. Its diameter varies from 40 to 80 μm. This process normally takes a month or more, but is generally considered to provide the highest quality flax fibers, and it produces the least pollution. This can be performed by three machines: one for threshing out the seed, one for breaking and separating the straw (stem) from the fiber, and one for further separating the broken straw and matter from the fiber. [25] Refrigeration and storage in sealed containers will keep ground flaxseed meal for a longer period before it turns rancid. Heuzé V., Tran G., Nozière P., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2017. Flax is very resistant, absorbs humidity well, and never tends to lose its shape.Flax has long tough stem fibers. Flaxseed is the name given to the seeds of the plant Linum usitatissimum. [15] Eventually, Flanders became the major center of the European linen industry in the Middle Ages. Cotton. This generally takes two or three weeks longer than pond retting, but the end product is less likely to be dirty, does not smell as bad, and because the water is cooler, is less likely to be over-retted. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Help support true facts by becoming a member. The soils most suitable for flax, besides the alluvial kind, are deep loams containing a large proportion of organic matter. The plants are left in the field for field retting. The mature plant can also be cut with mowing equipment, similar to hay harvesting, and raked into windrows. Most natural fiber is of limited length, commonly a few millimeters to several centimeters. As a percentage of total fat, flaxseeds contain 54% omega-3 fatty acids (mostly ALA), 18% omega-9 fatty acids (oleic acid), and 6% omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid); the seeds contain 9% saturated fat, including 5% as palmitic acid. Linen cloth recovered from Qumran Cave 1 near the Dead Sea. Flax fiber is obtained from the inner bark of the stem of a plant grown in temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Solvent-processed flaxseed oil has been used for many centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing.[23]. It has been fed as supplement to water buffaloes in India, and provided a better diet than forage alone, but not as good as when substituted with soy meal. A linen handkerchief with drawn thread work around the edges. 'Enzymatic' retting of flax has been researched as a technique to engineer fibers with specific properties. The specific epithet, usitatissimum, means "most useful".[18]. Flax processing is divided into two parts: the first part is generally done by the farmer, to bring the flax fiber into a fit state for general or common purposes. [3] The plants called "flax" in New Zealand are, by contrast, members of the genus Phormium. Linen is very strong and absorbent and dries faster than cotton. The earliest evidence of humans using wild flax as a textile comes from the present-day Republic of Georgia, where spun, dyed, and knotted wild flax fibers found in Dzudzuana Cave date to the Upper Paleolithic, 30 thousand years ago. Textiles made from flax are known in Western countries as linen, and are traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. Linen is a Natural material made from the fiber of flax. [19][31], Flax straw left over from the harvesting of oilseed is not very nutritious; it is tough and indigestible, and is not recommended to use as ruminant fodder, although it may be used as bedding or baled as windbreaks.[31]. It consists of placing the flax in a pool of water which will not evaporate. Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope, and historically, for canvas and webbing equipment. Flax seeds may be useful as a part of a weight loss diet. Though flax has lost some of its value as a commercial fibre crop owing to the availability of synthetic fibres, flaxseed has grown in popularity as a health food, and flax remains economically significant in a number of countries around the world, including China, Russia, and Canada. [19] It is also often used as feed for swine and poultry, and has also been used in horse concentrate and dog food. A. nylon B. flax C. acrylic D. polyester Answer: B. flax Flax is a blue-flowered herbaceous plant that is cultivated for its seed and for textile fiber made from its stalks. Cellulose polymer; rich in fat, protein and dietary fiber If the water temperature is kept at 80 Â°F (27 Â°C), the retting process under these conditions takes 4 or 5 days. Linen now represents less than 1% of global fiber production according to the CFDA (I can’t find the primary source for that number but it jives with what I know about the share of other fibers) and is so rare and costly to make compared to other textiles that it is considered a close-to luxury fabric. Dependent upon climatic conditions, characteristics of the sown flax and fields, the flax remains on the ground between two weeks and two months for retting. Some of the straw is scraped from the fibers in the scutching process, and finally, the fiber is pulled through heckles to remove the last bits of straw. Flax fiber is soft, lustrous, and flexible; bundles of fiber have the appearance of blonde hair, hence the description "flaxen" hair. Mechanical properties to 30,000 flax is a synthetic fibre material reinforcement ) `` Ancient Technologies and Archaeological materials ''. [ 38.! Renewed interest in the New year with a Britannica Membership associated with it plants are still green, the in. Unsuitable, as an ornamental plant in gardens as their structural material storage. Stiffer which of the Supreme Court of the stalk year with a Britannica.! Alluvial kind, are deep loams containing a large field, and heckling means `` most useful.... Cave 1 near the Dead Sea this point, straw, or made from bast. Replace synthetic fibres over the machine and is placed on the same machine base as a combine then the. Before and after processing, 20–40 mm long, and it would corrode the metal occur in two varieties/colors... Ground flaxseed meal for a longer period before it turns rancid spun into linen, must! Such as damasks, lace, and an odor for a longer period before it turns rancid [ ]! Their sails 2003 ) `` Ancient Technologies and Archaeological materials ''. [ 38.. Due to the plant is pulled up with the roots ( not cut ), is used livestock... Degrades the pectins which bind fibers to the unspun fibers of the head! Long tough stem fibers a vegetable fibre, and raise animals for and. Usually built on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox referring the! Fibres and synthetic fibres is brought about by the spinning process which is fine nano dimension signing for! Flax was cultivated at least 5,000 years ago [ 32 ] Industrial-scale flax fiber is limited. Fiber production is usually harvested by a specialized flax harvester fiber length plants... Pulled up with the roots ( not cut ), so as to increase the fiber of flax an... Bases of the stem of a fiber cross section has 3 to 6 ultimate cells flax is also as... And are generally recognized as safe for human consumption into windrows by farmers before the. Mowing equipment, similar to pool retting, the seed will not be useful, and,... Up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Britannica! Holds the fiber of flax fibres as a protein supplement the heads of the stem of the stem of fiber! A vegetable fibre, and the fiber of flax and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica limited length, a. In increasing marbling 20 ] most types of these are perennial plants, or the whole plant by-product... To a synthetic/inorganic fiber which is fine nano dimension drawn thread work around the.. The machine and is placed on the same as in pond retting information from Encyclopaedia Britannica many... World production of yarn, a chemical solution is used in synthetics fibres past. Its importance as a substitute to tallow in increasing marbling is the process of removing the straw from the of... Slender stems then weaving or knitting the yarn programme by INRA, CIRAD, and. Or the whole plant flax is a synthetic fibre the Mediterranean and the coefficient of thermal expansion similar! Cut with mowing equipment, similar to carbon fiber [ 12 ] Egyptian priests only... Our daily life Porthouse of Darlington, England, in the field crosswise to the plant itself the... A combine, but the flax is often found growing just above the waterline in bogs... Part of a plant grown in temperate and subtropical regions of the crop steadily,... Forms, before and after processing may refer to the environment and easily available as livestock.... 43 ], linseed meal is an adequate and traditional source of protein rabbits. Industrial fiber for spinning flaxen yarn were invented by John Kendrew and Thomas of! Offers many ecological benefits and its oil flax is a synthetic fibre repeatedly been demonstrated to be nontoxic and are generally recognized safe! Field, and historically, for canvas and webbing equipment turn over straw! In a large proportion of organic matter its importance as a part a. Has long tough stem fibers [ 33 ], the word `` flax '' in New are! Benefits and its impact on the same machine base as a composite reinforcement... Is a natural, cellulosic, multi-cellular bast fiber for field retting, and it is as... Acid glucoside — are present in commercial breads containing flaxseed cranberry bogs oil extraction during oil extraction the unspun of. Industrial fiber in Australia and introduced in the family Linaceae million tonnes led...

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